SIGNAL2000 has been superseded by and incorporated into the new TEAPAC Complete product which is described in detail at the main page of  Upgrades from SIGNAL2000 to TEAPAC Complete are available.  Contact Strong Concepts for details.

:SIGNAL2000 Ver 2.81 27MAY08

Build 11 - 27MAY08

>HCS+ Export Enhancements.

It has been discovered that the intersection numbering defined in the HCS+ XML data file format will only accept an intersection numbered #1, so intersection #1 is now always exported regardless of the actual intersection number in the SIGNAL2000 network. It has also been discovered that an ampersand (&) in a text field must be handled a special way in the XML file, so this method is now employed for any occurrence of an ampersand in the user's text strings.

>Better Terminology in Permitted LT Output Report.

Inspection of the 1-lane and multi-lane designations in the permitted left turn output report (HCM Supplemental LT-Factor Worksheet) has indicated that the terminology was confusing and likely to be interpreted in the reverse of its intent, so the use of the terms '1lane' and 'multi' in this report has been swapped accordingly.

>Better formatting for Detailed (cycle) output for DESIGN 0.

The Detailed output report for the DESIGN 0 optimization (for additional cycle optimization results) has been improved so it shows all of the results for each cycle which was optimized.

>Dialogs identify need for consistency between Yellowtimes & ReqClearances.

The dialogs for GreenTimes and YellowTimes have been updated with additional text to clarify the importance of maintaining a consistency between the YellowTimes and ReqClearances entries. This consistency is especially important when the entry format is Converted from By-Phase to By-Movement and when Exporting to ring-based software.

>Generic changes made to all Ver 7.81 TEAPAC programs.

Allow negative percentage on ASSIGNMENT for Passbys and Diverted trips.
Use Shift while dragging mouse to define development area on network display.
Dialogs identify need for consistency between Yellowtimes & ReqClearances.
Display dummy node dot and node number if it is current node or in Subsystem.
Note in CrdSysMgmt dialog that NewLinkDist button assumes coords are in feet.
Able to save from OpenIntoEdit if it was first file opened into program.
NOTE shows 'Issue X Not Selected' when case selection does not select an Issue.
File-OpenMerge does not allow existing Network data to be overwritten by zeros.
File-SaveAs to an existing file name with Scenario conditions doesn't hang.
File-SaveAs shows file type of current file & better file type descriptions.

:SIGNAL2000 Ver 2.80 25APR07

Build 00 - 08JUN07

>HCS+ Export Implemented, Now for Both Signalized and Unsignalized Locations.

The EXPORT function has been updated to use the native HCS+ data file format (XML-based), and has been expanded to include exporting for both signalized and unsignalized intersections defined in the complete TEAPAC network of intersections. This is now the default for the Export function, but as before, older versions of HCS can still be exported to by using the file extensions specific to those versions. The mapping of descriptive intersection information to HCS+ has also been modified to take advantage of the new capabilities in HCS+ in this regard. Details of these changes are in the Help topic for the EXPORT dialog.

>Status Window for DESIGN Re-enabled.

The status window which shows the progress of the DESIGN optimization has been re-enabled so that it shows the current cycle length and sequence code which is being optimized, thereby informing the user how much of the optimization has been completed and thus how much remains. The dynamic nature of the status window was disabled in a previous release of the program.

>Long File Names and Longer Path Names Implemented, Plus New File Format.

All aspects of TEAPAC data file storage, including SCENARIO condition files, have been extended so that file names can have as many as 70 characters in their names, and file path names can have as many as 180 characters, both including upper or lower case characters and spaces. Since SCENARIO condition files and certain file switch options can add as many as 6 characters to file names, it is best if user-entered names are no more than 64 characters.

A new, higher capacity data file format with a new file extension (.tpc) has been introduced which will be used by default for all new files created by all TEAPAC programs. This format is text-based like the old .for format so it is still easy to see what is in a file, as well as write such files from other programs, but with a look to the future this format has line length maximums of 256 characters per line (254 useable) instead of the more limiting maximums of the .for format which had maximums of 128 characters per line (80 useable). The old format can still be read and written simply by continuing to use the .for extension, but users are encouraged to convert files to the new format simply by saving .for file with the new .tpc extension (then archive the .for files so they are not used by mistake). The long file names and paths mentioned above are valid for either extension.

>New User Discussion Forum Is Accessible Directly from the Help Menu.

The new User Discussion Forum which has been implemented for TEAPAC users and is available 24/7 for posting questions and searching through answers to previous questions can now be accessed directly from the Help menu of the program. The Forum can also be accessed directly using any internet browser at

:SIGNAL2000 Ver 2.71 08SEP06

Build 07 - 25JAN07

Scroll down to 'Ver 2.70 07NOV05, Build 07 - 11NOV05' below for the major changes which were implemented for the original Visual TEAPAC release of this program.

>Default Value for DESIGN Optimization Changed.

The default value for the DESIGN optimization control parameter has been changed from 0 to 1 so that a default optimization will now always generate a capacity analysis of the top-ranked phasing and cycle length combination without changing the default.

>SCENARIO Program Makes its Debut.

SCENARIO is a new Visual TEAPAC program that can create multi-scenario data files either from scratch or from data files of earlier versions of TEAPAC. Users can 1) select from pre-defined typical scenario structures like multiple volume conditions or multiple timing plans, 2) create completely unique scenario conditions for their analyses, or 3) customize a pre-defined scenario structure to meet their specific needs. The primary advantage of using SCENARIO is that all the scenario data is saved without dangers of duplicated data which often occur when scenarios are managed by the typical use of File-SaveAs.

The SCENARIO program also functions as an automatic plugin for all other Visual TEAPAC programs so that each program automatically understands the SCENARIO file structure which has been created, and at no additional cost (see below).

SCENARIO can easily define both single-issue and multi-issue conditions, and any data dialog can be assigned or re-assigned to any defined issue for as many as five independent, mutually-exclusive Issues. 25 Conditions can be defined for each Issue. For example, a very common and simple single-issue scenario would be having multiple volume conditions for one or more intersections for which capacity analysis, intersection design and/or signal timing optimization would be needed. Other examples of a single-issue analysis could be multiple years of traffic count data for TURNS or WARRANTS, or multiple years or zones of land use for SITE's projected traffic estimation.

Multi-issue scenarios could be combinations of any of these, where the variation of one variable is independent of the others. Another example of a multi-issue scenario could be where one Issue is changing volumes based on the time-of-day and/or day-of-week while the other Issue is independently changing intersection geometrics which depend on differing funding possibilities.

>SCENARIO Support in All Visual TEAPAC Programs.

All Visual TEAPAC programs have been updated so that support for multi-issue data files created by SCENARIO is automatic and seamless. The SCENARIO program serves as a plugin to the other Visual TEAPAC programs so that they automatically support the SCENARIO-structured files for both File-Open and File-Save. A new File menu option labeled Get-Scenario-Case allows the user to select any of the Conditions for all of the Issues which have been created, and any subsequent changes to data which are made are automatically saved in the correct Condition files which have been defined. SCENARIO has also been added to all LinkTo menus so that SCENARIO is immediately available to modify the defined scenario structure, as necessitated by changing project assumptions.

>Generic Enhancements Made to All Visual TEAPAC Programs.

A number of additional generic enhancements and fixes have been made to the original Ver 7.00 releases of Visual TEAPAC and are collectively included as Ver 7.01 Build 07. These are documented below. Ver 7.01 Build 07 changes are free updates for Ver 7.00 licenses.

Data entry dialogs that don't apply to dummy nodes have been modified so that if they are inadvertently displayed while pointing to a dummy node they will not display unpredictable values or cause the program to crash.

The LinkTo menu has been adjusted so that if no data file path has been defined it will attempt to use the program's file path, but will not crash if neither of these is defined. The file menu options for Open, SaveAs and IntoEdit have been adjusted similarly for the condition when no data path has been defined.

A bug has been fixed that could cause a crash when clicking within an output being displayed at a zoomed-out scale on some low-resolution monitors.

:SIGNAL2000 Ver 2.70 07NOV05

Build 28 - 28AUG06

Scroll down to 'Ver 2.70 07NOV05, Build 07 - 11NOV05' below for the major changes which were implemented for the original Visual TEAPAC release of this program.

>V7.00.28: Generic Enhancements Made to All Visual TEAPAC Programs.

A number of generic enhancements and fixes have been made to the original Ver 7.00 releases of Visual TEAPAC and are collectively included as Ver 7.00 Build 28. These are documented below and use heading lines that begin with V7.00.28:. In addition, minor program-specific changes have been made, as summarized here and detailed in the program's own specific list of updates and changes. Ver 7.00 Build 28 changes are free updates for Ver 7.00 licenses.

>V7.00.28: Number of Access Drives Increased From 5 to 10 for SITE Computations.

The permitted number of driveways which provide access to a development area for SITE computations has been increased from 5 to 10 in all TEAPAC programs, allowing greater flexibility in modeling all driveways which may exist or be proposed for a development. Along with this change comes a quicker way of entering driveway locations by combining the intersection leg direction (N/E/S/W) with the node number of the drive, such as 1N or 132E.

>V7.00.28: Input Limit for VOLFACTORS Adjusted for Consistency with Save.

The largest VOLFACTOR which can be saved in a TEAPAC data file has always been 9.99, but it's been recently noticed that the input dialog error checking permitted factors as large as 20.0 without an error, resulting in subsequent problems if an attempt was made to save such an entry. The input error checking has been modified to match the save limitation to resolve this problem. At the same time, the discussion in the documentation has been modified to reflect the same precision of save accuracy to avoid any further confusion.

>V7.00.28: Multiple Copies of a Program Can Be Open Simultaneously Again.

The source of a problem which has recently prevented multiple copies of any given program from being open at the same time, such as when comparing alternatives side-by-side. This problem has been resolved and the ability to have multiple copies open simultaneously has been re-enabled.

>V7.00.28: Minor Fixes to Drag-and-Drop Network Interface.

An occasional problem connecting T-intersections properly when bend nodes were present in the network has been resolved. Build 21 versions of the programs would notify the user of the problem immediately upon creation of a link under these circumstances. If an earlier version was used to create the network, the problem is easily detected (if it exists) with the Analyze function in the new Coordinate System section of the Setup button dialog in the main window. the problem would manifest itself with upstream connections to the wrong node and/or incorrect distances. Creation of most T-intersections were not affected by this problem.

If an old TEAPAC data file saved from a program prior to Visual TEAPAC was opened using a LinkTo, drag-to or from a command line, a crash could result when an attempt was made by the program to update the Nodelist format to the new save format. This problem has been resolved.

Build 21 - 27JUL06

Scroll down to 'Ver 2.70 07NOV05, Build 07 - 11NOV05' below for the major changes which were implemented for the original Visual TEAPAC release of this program.

>Improved Modeling of Unopposed Left Turns.

For 'unopposed' left turns, the right turn model is no longer used (as in previous HCM versions) since this condition is handled properly by the Ped-Bike model for left turns. This change will only produce noticeably different results when a left turn is both 'unopposed' by vehicular traffic (this is not the same as a protected movement) and opposed by a significant volume of peds or bikes.

>V7.00.21: Generic Enhancements Made to All Visual TEAPAC Programs.

A number of generic enhancements and fixes have been made to the original Ver 7.00 releases of Visual TEAPAC and are collectively included as Ver 7.00 Build 21. These are documented below and use heading lines that begin with V7.00.21:. In addition, minor program-specific changes have been made, as summarized here and detailed in the program's own specific list of updates and changes. Ver 7.00 Build 21 changes are free updates for Ver 7.00 licenses.

>V7.00.21: New Coordinate System Management Features.

A new set of options to help manage the network coordinate system for any given data file has been added to all programs that use the Visual TEAPAC drag-and-drop network editing and display (all TEAPAC programs except NOSTOP, TED and TUTOR). The options appear in a new dialog which is displayed when the Coord Sys button is pressed in the network Setup dialog.

The Coordinate System Management dialog offers three main function - 1) to Analyze the current network for possible coding errors such as improperly-connected nodes and scaling issues, 2) to create a New Coordinate System by shifting and/or scaling the current coordinate system, and 3) to compute New Link Distances based on the current coordinate system. For the Analyze function, a percentage error can be input to define the threshold which identifies potential scaling problems between the coordinate system scale and each link's entered distance, and an option can be selected to check the approach angle of each intersection leg.

One of the motivations for this new option is to be able to identify and adjust network coordinate systems from older TEAPAC programs which exercised the option to specify the units of the coordinate system in something other than feet. Although this is still possible, it can be problematic with the new drag-and-drop Visual TEAPAC interface, and is not recommended. In combination with the new Manual Distance option described below and the functions of this new dialog, old coordinate systems can be easily converted for more predictable use under the new Visual TEAPAC methods.

>V7.00.21: New Manual Distance Option Added to NETWORK Dialog Entry.

A new option can be selected in the NETWORK dialog individually for any given link of the network that indicates that the distance entered for that link is intentionally inconsistent with the network coordinate system and apparent network scale. Links which have this option selected are specifically excluded from the computation of the average coordinate system scale used and reported in the network Analysis function described above. Although not recommended, selecting this option allows a link's distance to be inconsistent with the coordinate system without adversely affecting the management and checking of the rest of the network.

In addition to this option, the NETWORK dialog also shows the calculated link distance based on the coordinate system (and the average coordinate system scale, if not equal to 1.0), and if this calculated distance is outside of the allowed error specified in the Coordinate System Management dialog, it is displayed in red. The Manual Distance option status is also shown in all data summaries which include NETWORK data, and new distances which are required due to any network editing are now always based on the coordinate distance, unless a link is previously marked for Manual Distance.

>V7.00.21: Automatic Network Relationship Checks Made.

The new Analyze function of the Coordinate System Management dialog mentioned above is invoked automatically any time a data file is Opened or Saved, or any time NETWORK or NODELOCATION information is changed (either via drag-and-drop actions or direct keyboard entry), thereby giving immediate feedback when a network definition problem could be corrupting an analysis. The Analyze function is also invoked prior to other program functions which make significant use of the spatial arrangement of the network, such as Exporting in PRENETSIM, PRESYNCHRO and PRETSPPD and FindPaths in SITE.

>V7.00.21: Frequency of Automatic Update Check Can Be Set By User.

A new user entry can now be made which controls the number of days between automatic checks for program updates. The entry can be found in the Help-Check_For_Newer_Updates menu dialog. With this new feature, the maximum frequency of automatic checks is once per day, not every time the program is run. Automatic checks can be disabled by entering a frequency of 0 days, but this is not recommended (checking for updates every 10-30 days is recommended).

>V7.00.21: Improved Initial Zoom-All View for Large Coordinate Range.

The initial Zoom-All display for a network when a file is opened has been improved for all networks, especially those with a wide range of coordinates, such that the zoom level used is more appropriate for all combinations of networks and display resolutions.

>V7.00.21: Improved Network Editing Features.

A number of enhancements have been made to network editing functions to improve the response to various user actions, as follows. If a new link connection will over-write an existing leg of a node, the user is warned and given the option to select another leg or abort. If a new link creation is aborted for any reason, any new dummy nodes created as part of that process are deleted (including clicking on the network without dragging, now deleting the single node which was previously created). If a third leg is added to a bend node as part of a new link creation, the bend node is converted to a real node (and re-numbered accordingly). If deleting a node removes one leg of a bend node, the bend is converted to an external node. Default source movements for a new link which connects existing nodes with a diagonal are determined more reliably. Left-click can be used while in the Create New Link mode to select the current node.

>V7.00.21: Fixes to SIMULATION Dialog.

The 'Use TRANSYT or PASSER Actuated Model' option of the SIMULATION dialog is now both properly selectable without any error messages, and displayed properly in the dialog, and a random glitch which garbled part of the main window Network display when the SIMULATION dialog opened has been fixed.

>V7.00.21: Make Help File Useable When a Data File is Double-clicked.

A problem locating the .HLP file when a user data file was double-clicked in Windows Explorer to open it has been fixed.

Build 14 - 20APR06

Scroll down to 'Ver 2.70 07NOV05, Build 07 - 11NOV05' below for the major changes which were implemented for the original Visual TEAPAC release of this program.

>New OUTPUT Option for 2-Page Capacity ANalysis Summary.

A new OUTPUT option called 'Input' has been added to include the Input Worksheet (only) with the Capacity Analysis Summary output report, resulting in a compact, 2-page summary of both input and results for a capacity analysis.

>Critical V/C Added to Capacity Analysis Summary.

Critical v/c has been added to the top of the Capacity Analysis Summary output report as an additional measure of intersection performance potential. User's are cautioned in the documentation to recognize that critical v/c is a measure of performance potential, not actual performance, since the value of the result assumes signal timings balance the critical v/c ratios is independent of the actual signal timings.

>V7.00.14: Generic Enhancements Made to All Visual TEAPAC Programs.

A number of generic enhancements and fixes have been made to the original Ver 7.00 release of Visual TEAPAC and are collectively included as Ver 7.00 Build 14. These are documented below and use heading lines that begin with V7.00.14:. Ver 7.00 Build 14 changes are free updates for Ver 7.00 licenses.

>V7.00.14: Color Selection Added to Options Menu.

The Options menu now provides a Colors option for selecting colors which are used when generating formatted output reports and the main window network display. Any selections made are retained and used during future program sessions. Most of the default colors for formatted output reports are taken from the user's desktop color scheme (DisplayProperties-Appearance), so changing the color scheme will automatically change the output colors used when the defaults are selected. All colors selected, including actual selections and defaults, are displayed in the Color management dialog produced by the Options-colors menu selection.

>V7.00.14: Browse Button Added to Select a Bitmap File.

A browse button has been added to the Network Display and Edit Management dialog which is displayed when the Setup button of the main window is pressed. This can be used to select a bitmap background file in the data file folder as an alternative to simply typing the file name in the entry field.

>V7.00.14: INTERSECTION Dialog Options Added.

The INTERSECTION dialog which is used to select the 'current' node has been significantly enhanced with several new features, as follows. A check box enables the inclusion of dummy nodes in the drop-down list so dummy nodes can be selected from the dialog; and nodes in the drop-down list can be ordered in any of three arrangements - the order they appear in the NODELIST, numeric order by node number, or alphabetic order by intersection description.

On a related note, the network display is now updated any time a new current intersection is selected, including when it is entered from the Manual Mode, when it is entered from file input, etc. Also, when a dummy node is selected as the current node, it is always highlighted in the network display, even when the zoom level is such that other dummy nodes are not displayed.

>V7.00.14: Option Added to Delete All References to Deleted Node.

When a node is deleted or cut from the network, either from the main window network display or from the NODELIST dialog, a prompt to verify the deletion is now always issued, and the prompt now includes a new option to include the deletion of all other references to the deleted node elsewhere in the network. The option to delete all references is pre-selected by default on each deletion, but can be de-selected in the prompt dialog box.

On a related note, the manipulation of nodes in the NODELIST dialog has been extended to include dummy nodes as well as real nodes, offering greater flexibility in managing the entire node list from this dialog. A problem with the Copy and Paste functions (to and from the clipboard) has also been fixed.

>V7.00.14: Improved Support for PDF Creation.

Difficulties producing PDF files for formatted output reports with certain PDF writers have been resolved.

>V7.00.14: Improved Constraint In Use of SUBSYSTEM Function.

The use of the drag function in the main window network display to create or edit a SUBSYSTEM has been constrained for better consistency with the allowed use of the SUBSYSTEM feature based on the program's licensed Usage Level. This prevents inadvertent setting of the SUBSYSTEM which then causes an error when opening a file which has this feature saved.

>V7.00.14: Maximum Link Length Increased from 9999 to 32000.

The maximum link length allowed by all TEAPAC programs has been increased from 9,999 feet (<2 miles) to 32,000 feet (> 6 miles), and a warning message is now issued if a link is created in the main window network display that exceeds this limit.

>V7.00.14: File-OpenMerge Function Enhanced.

The File-OpenMerge function has been enhanced in several ways, as follows. First, if a file being merged contains information about a bitmap file and its scaling, this information is ignored in deference to the bitmap/scaling information currently in effect in the program. The help strings for this function have also been updated, and the function is initialized more completely each time it is used to avoid overlap with responses to previous error situations.

>V7.00.14: Help File Formatting Restored to Previous Style.

The numbering of the indented paragraphs in the Notes section of Appendix B of the Help file has been restored, as appeared previously.

>V7.00.14: Minor Cleanups and Fixes Implemented.

A number of (mostly internal) cleanups and fixes have been implemented for more reliable operation of Visual TEAPAC programs. Most of these will not be noticeable to users, but a couple will resolve certain problems a few users have experienced. For example, opening an old TEAPAC data file which does not contain valid NODELOCATION entries for each intersection will not crash, and moving a bend node under certain conditions will not cause the program to close prematurely.

Build 07 - 11NOV05

>Visual TEAPAC - A Whole New Way of Seeing TEAPAC.

All 13 modules of the TEAPAC suite of programs have been upgraded to the Visual TEAPAC (Version 7) interface. Primarily, this means each program sports a much more visual input and output system to make entering and viewing data for the analysis network much easier and to make the resulting output reports clearer and easier to read. The general aspects of the two major enhancement areas, visual input and visual output, are described below, followed by the many other supporting enhancements that go along with the Visual TEAPAC upgrade.

When combined with the unparalleled 1-file, 1-click, 500-intersection, completely seamless data sharing introduced with each of the 13 TEAPAC2004 (Version 6) programs, Visual TEAPAC provides an unmatched experience of fully-integrated visual traffic engineering and traffic planning software. Read on for the details.

>Visual TEAPAC - Graphical Input and Display of Analysis Network.

All TEAPAC programs (except NOSTOP and TUTOR) now provide a drag-and-drop user interface as a way to create and/or display the study network in the main window of the program. The network can be drawn schematically or to precise scale with the aid of an underlying grid, or a bitmap can be displayed under the network to make drawing easy and/or display of the network more meaningful. The bitmap file can be an aerial photograph, a street map, as-built drawings, or any other such display which would be helpful, and this bitmap is exported to third-party program such as CORSIM and TRANSYT as permitted.

Streets can be drawn by clicking on the grid or scaled bitmap and dragging across the extent of the street section, creating analysis intersections where the new street segment crosses existing street segments. The Setup button can be used to identify the bitmap, scale the bitmap and establish an axis origin, either before the network is drawn or afterwards for pre-existing data files. Special display adjustment modes allow quick re-orientation to new bitmaps, such as when using higher-resolution bitmaps for a zoomed-in study area versus a regional area bitmap.

Dummy nodes are automatically created to orient external legs of intersections around the periphery of the study network, and internal dummy bend nodes are easily created for better network representation between analysis intersections. Proper treatment of all dummy nodes (externals and bends) are fully integrated into all of the TEAPAC application programs, as well as the eleven+ third-party programs to which TEAPAC analyses can be exported. Dummy nodes do not count against the maximum number of intersections allowed by each Usage Level.

Intersections and dummy nodes are easily moved within the network by simply dragging them across the grid or bitmap, with the option to freeze the associated link distances, or have them adjust automatically as they are moved.

The network view is easily adjusted with buttons for panning in eight directions, zoom in, zoom out, zoom all to show the entire network, and a rubber-band selection to outline the desired zoom-in area. The display of either the bitmap or the network is easily toggled on or off, as required, and the current intersection for subsequent dialog data entry or analysis is made by simply clicking the intersection. Intersections can also be selected by a right-click which opens a popup menu with all the data entry and data analysis dialogs immediately available, either in Normal View or Tabular View (use F3 to toggle the view). The popup menu also allows the renumbering or deletion of the selected node. Dragging a rubber-band selection box around a set of intersections can be used to define or add to (with Ctrl key) a subsystem of intersections for subsequent analysis.

The on-screen shortest-path FindPath assignment function of the SITE program is now performed in color directly on the main-window graphics network display, including the bitmap background, providing helpful visual cues while performing the assignment process.

The on-screen Startup Help? button provides immediate assistance for all of the functions described above. Visit for examples of the new graphical input front-end now found in Visual TEAPAC.

>Visual TEAPAC - Enhanced Graphical Output Reporting.

All TEAPAC programs now feature enhanced, graphical output reporting for all results produced. Output reports now make full use of color and graphics drawing for arrows, phasing diagrams, permitted movements, time-space diagrams, intersection diagrams, cycle optimization graphs, daily count variation graphs, etc. All reports are printable on any color or black & white printer supported by Windows, including PDF writers. Any graphics output page can be copied to the clipboard as a bitmap so it can be pasted into other applications. The prior version's text-only results are still viewable alone or in parallel with the graphical results, and selected text can be copied to the clipboard or saved to a text file for subsequent use, as before. In Visual TEAPAC, you are no longer limited to the old, archaic, hard-to-read character graphics which was used when TEAPAC was originally created (what did your computer look like 30 years ago?).

All output reports use shades of color from the desktop theme/style setting to highlight the results, including report titles, report sub-sections, column headings and alternating output lines. The proportionally-spaced, sans-serif Tahoma font is used for easier readability, including right-justified numeric results in columns.

Viewing options include zoom in, zoom out, zoom all to see an entire page, rubber-band selection to zoom in, drag the page to scroll and click to re-center. Text strings can be searched for within one or many pages of results and multi-page results can be quickly scanned with controls to advance to the next or previous page, the next or previous report, or the beginning or end of all results.

Visit for examples of the new graphical output back-end now found in Visual TEAPAC.

>Other Generic Enhancements Found in All Visual TEAPAC Programs.

Many other generic enhancements have been made to the Visual TEAPAC user interface which is now included in every TEAPAC program. These include:

-- Windows XP style buttons, drop-down lists, scroll windows, etc.
-- all Edit and Results menus can be accessed by right-click.
-- all demos allow at least 4 intersections to be entered and analyzed.
-- license keys are valid for any older version of the same program;
license info displays in Help-About, including site license address.
-- leading W removed from all program file names for easy recognition;
LinkTo and Menu looks for new name first, then old name with W, for
backward compatibility with older versions of other TEAPAC programs.
-- default node to renumber is the current node, not 0.
-- Startup Help button is located in main window and now in Help menu;
StartUp.txt can be modified by user with virtually unlimited size.
-- View-Network and Options-Graphics menu options have been removed.

>Program-Specific Enhancements Included in Visual TEAPAC Upgrade.

Timings provided or optimized 'by movement' are displayed with a new ring-based display in the capacity analysis report. New options (TrapOk, MultiOk & Unrestricted) for the Permissives dialog allow both the analysis and optimization of two special-case permitted left turn conditions - the left turn trap and multi-turn-lane permitted operations. The message that displays each time an unsignalized intersection is skipped in an analysis can now be disabled. Warning messages that display when high turn percentages are encountered are automatically omitted when the sum of the turn percentages is 98% or higher, such as at T-intersections or special conditions with dummy through movements. Dummy nodes are skipped without any messages when all intersections are being analyzed, and dummy node conditions are reported in abbreviated form at the end of a Summary of Parameter Values produced for all intersections.

SIGNAL2000 output reports which are significantly enhanced by the new color-graphics results produced by Visual TEAPAC include: all phasing displays, clearly showing permitted movements and critical design movements, either in HCM 'by-phase' style or ring-based 'by-movement' style; the Capacity Analysis Summary boxes for each approach; and the intersection data summary diagram.

:SIGNAL2000 Ver 2.61 23MAY05

Scroll down to 'Ver 2.60 08SEP04, Build 06 - 22SEP04' below for the major changes which were implemented for the original TEAPAC2004 release of this program.

Build 12 - 30SEP05

>Field Width Error Detection Modified for More Useful Performance.

A new error check was recently introduced to warn a user that too many characters for an input field had been entered and that the entry would be truncated. The aggressive response to this condition (ignoring the entry entirely) has been toned back, now accepting the truncated input with a similar warning. This reduces the potential for the need to re-type an entry which may be perfectly fine in its truncated form, or require only minor editing to correct instead of complete re-entry. The new error check has also been eliminated for any entries of the GROUPTYPES dialog, most of whose possible entry values can typically exceed the actual allocated input field width.

Another effect of the overly-aggressive error check was that certain drop-down list values in a number of dialog boxes had pre-programmed entries which exceeded the input field width, thus preventing them from executing properly. These included drop-down lists in the OUTPUT, CONDITIONS, GENERATION and PATHDISTRIBUTION dialogs. The field widths of all of these entries have been modified to accept the full drop-down list pre-programmed entries.

>Extra Warning Message Eliminated When Opening New Files.

If a user is warned about unsaved data or results values when a new file is about to be opened, with an option to first save the values, certain circumstances could cause the same message to be re-displayed a second time, regardless of the user response to the first message. This duplicate warning message has been eliminated.

>Debug Value Removed from Display for Text Search Function.

A spurious debug value was inadvertently left in the production version of the program, displaying each time a text string is searched for in any output window or edit window. The debug display has been removed.

>Key Files Are Now Valid for All Prior Versions of Program.

The key file processing logic has been enhanced to allow a given key file to be used not only for various builds and minor updates for the licensed version, but also for any version of the program prior to the licensed version. This minimizes the hassle of multiple key file management when multiple versions of a program are being used, for example, to maintain consistency in results throughout the course of a project which was begun with an older version of a given program that has been updated.

Build 10 - 04AUG05

>Increased Precision for Default Lane Utlilization Factors.

The default lane utilization factors which are used when an entry of 0.00 is made have had their precision increased from two decimal places to three decimal places to match the precision found in Exhibit 10-23. This change will have very slight impacts on results of SIGNAL2000 capacity analyses, but should be considered more faithful to the HCM 2000. Entered lane utilization factors must still be limited to two decimal places of entry.

>Print Problem Resolved from Tabular View.

Difficulties experienced by some users attempting to print results when using the Tabular View have been resolved.

>Improved Phasing Display in Dialog Boxes.

The currently-selected signal phasing for an intersection which is displayed in some dialog boxes has been improved so that improperly-coded permitted left turns display differently than expected to indicate the error in coding.

Build 00 - 23MAY05

>New Message Warns User That Calculated and/or Imported Values Have Not Been Saved.

A new message has been created which warns a user when calculated and/or imported values will be lost when the program is closed or File-New is used. This provides a check against inadvertently losing data results which could otherwise be saved in a file for future use or use by another program. The existence of unsaved calculated and/or imported values is indicated in the window caption with an asterisk (*) in the same fashion as changed user entry values. In the case of SIGNAL2000, the protected values are the calculated SATURATIONFLOWS and/or optimized CYCLES, GREENTIMES, YELLOWTIMES, CRITICALS and/or SEQUENCES. A similar message is now issued when File-Open or Reset [Parameters] is used when edited, calculated and/or imported values have not been saved.

>Edit Window Contents Can Be Printed, Including Line Numbers.

The contents of the TED Edit window, either within TED or the built-in edit window in any TEAPAC program, can now be printed using the normal print menu or toolbar buttons, including line numbers.

>Global Entry of Additional Sequence Codes Now Includes All Extra Codes.

The entry of additional sequence codes for intersection 0 (to be assigned to all intersections) has been expanded so that all extra sequence codes will be assigned to all intersections, not just the first extra sequence code. This allows added flexibility when using this global entry feature for SEQUENCES.

>VOLADDITIONALS Values Now Allowed to be Negative.

The entry or computed values for VOLADDITIONALS is now allowed to have negative values, with a complete input range permitted from -9999 to 9999. This is primarily to afford the possibility of re-assignments of traffic to result in a net reduction of volume for individual movements, either by manual entry or computations from SITE. In the case of SITE, this also means that ROUNDing of results can create small negative VOLADDITIONALS in locations that receive little or no new traffic and where final volumes are rounded down (this is appropriate and to be expected).

>LinkTo followed by Another LinkTo Performs Properly.

Multiple LinkTo operations can now be performed smoothly under all conditions without limitation. Previously it was observed that under certain conditions, one LinkTo followed by another LinkTo could cause certain problems successfully connecting to the next desired program.

>Better Graphics for Phasing Display and Bitmap Buttons.

The arrows used to represent phasing in various dialogs have been improved in quality and appearance, and if timings for phasings are defined by-movement instead of by-phase, the by-movement phasing diagrams are now shown in every relevant dialog. In addition, the pan and zoom button bitmaps within the View-Network display have been improved for better clarity.

>Option to Select Pages to Print; Page 0 for Current Page.

An option has been added to the Print-Setup dialog which allows the selection of specific pages to be printed instead of always printing all pages in the output window. Selection of page 0 will print only the current output page (the page which contains the insertion point cursor).

>View-Network Works Without Defined Network Distances.

Previously it was not possible to perform the View-Network function unless all NETWORK distances had been entered. This was due to the function's attempt to establish a scale factor between the network distances entered and the potentially arbitrary coordinate system used. Now, if distances are not entered, View-Network simply assumes the scale factor is 1.

>Warnings Issued If Too Many Characters Entered or Number Too Large in an Input Field.

If a user enters more characters in a dialog's input field than the dialog expects or can process, a warning is now issued and the entire entry is ignored, rather than just ignoring the extra characters. This allows for better understanding by the user that the entry may not have been processed correctly. The F5 Refresh button should be used in all cases to see the current dialog values after the warning. On a similar note, if an entry has a numeric value too large for the intended internal variable, this condition is also noted with a message rather than allowing the possibility of a more catastrophic reaction by the program at a later point.

:SIGNAL2000 Ver 2.60 08SEP04

Scroll down to 'Build 06 - 22SEP04' below for the major changes which were implemented for the original TEAPAC2004 release of this program.

Build 07 - 07DEC04

>ACTUATIONS Saved Value Corrected.

If ACTUATIONS were saved by a method other than File-Save, the saved values may have been corrupted in the initial TEAPAC2004 version of the program. This has been corrected. If legitimate ACTUATIONS values existed in any data file which was subsequently saved by this non-standard method, these values should be checked carefully for validity. If an attempt is made to read such corrupted values, error messages will be issued which should be ignored, then the values should be verified and/or corrected.

>Separator Lines Inserted In Data File.

Blank lines are now inserted between intersections and site generation data in TEAPAC2004 data files to aid in distinguishing the parts of the data file when being viewed as a text file.

>Last Output Window Contents Saved in Text File Upon Program Closure.

The contents of the last Output Window display are now always saved in a temporary file (TMPxxx.OUT, where xxx is the program's abbreviated name) when a TEAPAC2004 program exits, thus leaving the last output produced in a text file for review and post-processing, if desired. The file is located in the folder which contains the authoring program (usually C:\TEAPAC) and is over-written the next time the same program exits. This feature also allows viewing of results created by a scripted control file which contains the Stop command, as well as multiple, linked control files which link to each other or are run from a batch command file. Also, a change has been made to make sure that all output generated by launching a control file from a command line is captured in the Output Window and/or the TMPxxx.OUT file. Lastly, if an Output Window is open when a Stop command is encountered in a control file, that Output Window is now always closed automatically.

>Automatic Closure of Save Message.

The message which is displayed when File-Save is used is now closed automatically in all cases after a brief display to confirm that the save has occurred as desired. Only Advanced file save messages are displayed until closed manually (unless the automatic closure checkbox is selected). Any save action directed from a control file is also closed automatically after a brief display in order to allow unattended operation.

>View-Network Shows Exiting External Legs.

The schematic network diagram created by the View-Network menu will now show external intersection legs for one-way street segments departing from an intersection.

>Longer Window Caption File Path Display.

The number of characters used to display the current file name(s), path and save status has been increased so that more of the file path is visible in the top caption line of the main window.

>Tabular View Caption Overflow Fixed to Prevent Corruption of Node# Display.

A problem in the caption display of the Tabular View window has been fixed so it no longer corrupts the display of the Current Node in the main window.

>File Functions Restored in TEAPAC Menu.

The 'Use this file:' function has been restored to the TEAPAC Menu so a file can be found by browsing, dragging to the Menu window, or double-clicking in Explorer. Then use of that file can be transferred to any TEAPAC program in the Menu. This function was inadvertantly disabled in the initial TEAPAC2004 release.

Build 06 - 22SEP04

>Summary of TEAPAC2004 Release of SIGNAL2000.

After 2 years in development, the TEAPAC2004 version of SIGNAL2000 has been released as Ver 2.60. The highlights of the changes since its prior release include the following:

Completely seamless, one-click, one-file exchange of all input and results with all PRE-processors, SITE, TURNS and WARRANTS, including calculations of HCM satflows, optimized timings, peak-period turn counts and estimated site traffic.

New volume adjustment inputs to allow factoring volumes and adding additional volumes on a movement-by-movement basis.

New sensitivity controls for global testing of factored volumes, additive volumes, factored satflows, minimums, clearances, etc.

Complete implementation of the enhanced TEAPAC2004 (Ver 6) user interface, as described below.

>New Volume Adjustment Inputs Provide Sensitivity Analysis Flexibility.

A new input called VOLFACTORS has been added that allows a volume adjustment factor to be provided for each individual movement of each intersection. Each volume entry is multiplied by this factor, with the option of further providing a number of years the factor should first be compounded. This feature provides the ability to easily test various traffic growth factor scenarios, as well as sensitivity analysis for the base volume entry.

Another new input called VOLADDITIONALS has been added that allows a volume adjustment value to be provided for each individual movement of each intersection. Each volume entry is adjusted by adding this additional volume, with the option of further providing a single factor for each intersection which is first multiplied by the additional volume before the it is added to the base volume. This feature provides the ability to test additive growth scenarios, in addition to the factored growth scenarios allowed by VOLFACTORS above, such as when evaluating site traffic development scenarios. The VOLADDITIONALS factor can also be used to easily 'turn off' the additional volume by using a factor of zero, and 'turn back on' the additional volumes. VOLADDITIONALS are computed directly by SITE for site traffic impact scenarios and saved in data files for immediate analysis and optimization by SIGNAL2000.

>Minor Organizational and Usability Changes.

MINIMUMS and REQCLEARANCES have been added to the [BASIC] menu and group definition for quicker accessibility, since these are common inputs required for realistic optimization. The INTERSECTION dialog has also been removed from the [APPROACH], [MOVEMENT] and [PHASING] menu/group definitions -- they were originally added to these menus/groups for better awareness of the current intersection in the Tabular View, but the current intersection is now listed in the caption of the Tabular View.

>T2004v6: TEAPAC2004 Interface Enhancements Found In All Programs.

TEAPAC2004 (Ver 6) includes a multitude of enhancements which are part of the generic user interface found in all TEAPAC programs (some do not apply to NOSTOP, TED or TUTOR, for readily-apparent reasons). All of the generic enhancements are listed below with heading lines that begin with T2004v6:.

>T2004v6: One Common Data File Supports All TEAPAC Programs.

The most significant and obvious change made to each TEAPAC program in Version 6 is that all programs now share a single, common data file structure that contains all of the data entries used by all TEAPAC programs. This means that any TEAPAC program (except NOSTOP and TUTOR) can open any file from any other TEAPAC program, make changes to any of the data values it contains, and re-Save the file with complete retention of all data values for future use by any other TEAPAC program.

The first implication of this major fundamental change is that the concept of File-OpenShare of earlier TEAPAC programs is no longer needed since the sharing of TEAPAC files among TEAPAC programs is now fundamental and automatic. File-OpenShare has been re-named to File-OpenMerge/Share to better reflect its current function, to merge the content of multiple files, and can still be used to read and merge the content of files from older versions of SIGNAL97, SIGNAL2000 (Ver 1), SITE, TURNS and WARRANTS -- OpenMerge is automatic when reading these files. Also, the warning message when saving to a file created by one of these other programs has been removed, again because this function is now standard procedure and has no risk of loss of data.

The second implication of this change is that any values computed by one program and to be used by another (such as peak-period volumes from TURNS, HCM satflows from SIGNAL2000, optimized signal timings and phasings from SIGNAL2000, projected traffic from SITE, etc.) need only be saved into the data file with File-Save, then the next program launched with the same file using the LinkTo menu. A single click positions the user in the next program ready to do the analysis of that program.

Lastly, all programs (except NOSTOP and TUTOR) now have the ability to store all of this data for up to 500 intersections in a single file.

>T2004v6: LinkTo Menu In All TEAPAC Programs Includes All TEAPAC Programs.

All TEAPAC programs (except NOSTOP and TUTOR) now contain the LinkTo menu which now provides immediate access to all other TEAPAC programs with a single click which causes the current data file to be re-opened in that program.

>T2004v6: LinkTo Function Now Allows Direct Link to Host Programs.

A new function of the LinkTo menu has been added which allows direct linkage to the six host programs which are supported by the six TEAPAC preprocessors. These are PRETRANSYT for TRANSYT, PREPASSR for PASSER, PRENETSIM for CORSIM, PRESYNCHRO for Synchro/SimTraffic, PRETSPPD for TS-PP/Draft, and now PRENOSTOP for NOSTOP. Since all programs have access to the control directives for all the preprocessors, this means, for example, that a TRANSYT run can be made directly from SIGNAL2000 with a LinkTo-TRANSYT (assuming a licensed copy of PRETRANSYT is installed on the system).

>T2004v6: Global Input Option for Most Intersection Inputs.

A powerful new feature has been added to all TEAPAC programs that allows the value of a single data entry to be made to all intersections in the NODELIST (or the SUBSYSTEM, if one is defined). This is done when Intersection 0 is selected, and the user is first warned of the pending global entry action and followed by an audible beep when the global entry is made. The warning message can be omitted for future such actions, if desired.

Examples of uses for this new feature include the following: Enter a common cycle length or cycle range for SIGNAL2000 optimization of all signals; designate a full SIGNAL2000 phasing optimization for all signals; set the new volume adjustment factor or number of years for compounding a growth factor for all intersections for sensitivity analysis; enable or disable the new additional volumes entry for all intersections; designate a common peak hour factor for specific movements or all movements of all intersections; set the minimum or required clearance values for optimization at all signals; set the satflow adjustment factor for all signals to perform sensitivity analysis; etc. The possibilities of this new feature are virtually endless.

>T2004v6: View-Network Function Improved with Easier Pan & New Zoom.

The View-Network function has been added to all programs (except NOSTOP and TUTOR), and has been greatly improved in functionality regarding the ability to pan up/down and left/right, as well as new functions for zoom in/out and selecting a view area of the network connections and underlying bitmap with the mouse.

>T2004v6: Output/Edit Window Major Enhancements.

The Output and Edit Windows have been enhanced with menus and toolbar buttons which provide the ability to Find a user-entered text string, find the next output report and find the next page of results. A button also allows moving backwards thru the output to the previous output page. In the Edit Window, an additional Find & Replace function has also been provided. Also, the current line number of the cursor is displayed in the status line of the window, and the ^A function now performs the standard 'SelectAll' function instead of copying the entire window to the clipboard.

>T2004v6: Toolbar Button Provided for Intersection Selection.

A toolbar button has been provided in the main window next to the +/- buttons which provides direct access to the Intersection dialog to select the 'current' intersection, allowing quick access to this common function without the need to use the menus.

>T2004v6: Intersection/Type Description Listed in Dialog Caption.

If an intersection description has been provided for the current intersection (via the Intersection dialog), this description is displayed in the caption of any intersection data dialog in addition to the intersection number. For traffic impact studies with SITE, the same function is true for the current distribution type. These number and description displays are now also included in the caption of the Tabular View window.

>T2004v6: Check For Internet Update Function Provided.

A new function has been provided in the Help menu of every TEAPAC program that allows the user to have the program check the internet for any available downloadable updates. This function can be set to automatically check for updates every time the program is launched. If updates are found, this fact is displayed along with the status of the update (free or if a fee is involved and what that fee is), as well as a link to a complete description of what functionality changes the update includes, the ability to launch an email requesting a new key for a paid update or a quote for an upgrade. Options to view a complete price list online, to launch an email requesting technical support, and to go to the Strong Concepts main web page are also provided. This feature was partially implemented in the most recent downloads of several TEAPAC programs and accepted with great enthusiasm.

>T2004v6: INTERSECTION Dialog Includes Option to Renumber a Node and All Refs.

The INTERSECTION dialog now contains a feature to renumber any intersection in the NODELIST to any value not currently in the NODELIST. When selected, all references to the old node number anywhere else in the network are also updated, making renumbering a snap.

>T2004v6: Save Remembers Selected Intersection/Type for Subsequent Open.

When data files are saved, a directive is placed at the end of the file which remembers the 'current' intersection and current distribution type so that these positions can be reset when the file is subsequently re-opened by either the same program or any other TEAPAC program.

>T2004v6: Error Message Help Leaves Dialogs Open so Errant Entries Can Be Seen.

When Help for an error or warning message is displayed, the dialog entry which caused the error or warning is now left open so the entered values can be inspected in relation to the help advise given. Also, a note is provided in the message to use the Refresh button to see the dialog with the actual current values which are likely to not reflect the entry attempted (which caused the error or warning).

>T2004v6: Errors Contain Cancel Button to Abort File-Open or Control File.

When errors or warnings are issued as a result of reading a data file, a Cancel button is now provided which allows the user to abort continued attempts to read the file. This is now a convenient way to halt attempted processing of a file which is clearly not what was intended, or for power users, a way to kill a control file which has gone off the deep end.

>T2004v6: OUTPUT Dialog Contains Entries for All Programs.

The OUTPUT dialog is a common dialog name which has had different content for most TEAPAC programs. This conflict and impediment for combining all the TEAPAC data into a single file for TEAPAC2004 has been resolved by having a common OUTPUT dialog for all programs which contains the OUTPUT parameters for all TEAPAC programs. In the manual mode and control files, this involves the addition of a new parameter #1 which is the name of the program for which the following values apply, and thus all OUTPUT parameters for all programs are stored in the file and displayed in the dialog.

>T2004v6: Wording on Dialogs Used by Multiple Programs Improved.

The wording on dialogs which are used by multiple programs in TEAPAC2004 have been clarified so that it is more apparent what the relevance is to the current program in which the dialog is found.

>T2004v6: NODELIST Entry Protected from Change in Tabular View.

The only safe place to change the NODELIST after it has been entered is in the Normal View NODELIST dialog, so the NODELIST entry in the Tabular View has been greyed and protected from change to avoid unintended changes and possible disastrous results.

>T2004v6: Options-Setup Uses Browse for Folder, not Browse for File.

The Browse button in the Options-Setup dialog now produces a Browse-for-Folder dialog instead of the File-Open dialog so it is more clear what the function will return.

>T2004v6: Dialog Actions Re. ROUTEs with 9+ Nodes Fixed, Including Save.

Certain problems with ROUTES which contained more than 8 nodes have been fixed, including saving these route definitions.

>T2004v6: Recent File Menu Option Works Under All Windows Platforms.

Display of recently used files in the File menu has presented problems under certain Windows platforms, and thus an option has been provided to turn this display off so recent files are accessed only thru the File-RecentFiles dialog. This problem has been fixed so recent files can be displayed in the File menu on any Windows platform, and thus the default condition for this feature has been changed from No to Yes.

>T2004v6: Command-Line Control File Enhancements.

When a user has set a TEAPAC program to start in the Tabular View, ASK commands in command-line control files could not be used. This limitation has been eliminated so this feature can be used, if desired.

The output window for output generated by a command-line control file now appears in front of the main window so it is immediately visible without the need to click it to bring it to the front.

A new /x option has been added at the end of a command-line file name which instructs the program to open the command-line file as File #x (the default is File #1, as before). This allows the data file which a control file #2-5 opens to be designated as File #1 so that it is the file which will be open for subsequent File-Save operations from the File menu. Opening command-line control files as #2-5 instead of #1 is now the recommended practice.

>T2004v6: -X Entry for INTERSECTION Number Allowed As Positional Input.

The intersection number on an INTERSECTION command line or dialog is now allowed to be a negative number between -1 and -N where N is the number of intersections in the NODELIST. When this is the case, the intersection selected is the i-th node of the NODELIST when -i is used. The expected use of this feature is to allow REPEAT loops in control files to easily sequence through all the nodes of the NODELIST when the NODELIST is not in numerical order and/or not a sequential list of nodes from 1 to N.

>T2004v6: TEAPAC Menu Enhancements.

A new File menu in the TEAPAC Menu shows recent files which have been used by the program; a new Options menu allows program folder setup for all of the third-party programs supported by the Menu; a new Help menu can list recently installed changes and check the internet for updates; default support for VISSIM 4 and TRANSYT-7F Release 10 is provided.

TEAPAC files which are double-clicked to be launched thru the TEAPAC Menu now open into the menu only without launching the program that created the file (since any file can now be used by any program, this old action is no longer appropriate).

>T2004v6: Printable On-screen Manuals Available as PDF Downloads.

The full documentation for each TEAPAC program has always been directly available as the on-screen manual which also serves as the context-sensitive Help document. Options for obtaining printed/bound copies of this document have also been available at an additional cost. Now, in addition, this document is available as a downloadable PDF file which provides the ability to print a copy locally, as well as search the entire document for user-defined strings.

:SIGNAL2000 Ver 2.02 22NOV03

Build 16 - 16JUL04

>More Flexibility Added for Lost Time Calculation in Protected-Permitted LT.

SIGNAL2000 has been enhanced to provide the ability to have different lost time values calculated for the protected and permitted portions of compound left turns. In prior versions, a single lost time value was calculated for each movement of an intersection. Now, if Yellow+AllRed clearance times are different for the protected and permitted phases of a protected-permitted or permitted-protected left turn, the computed lost times for these two conditions will be different, better reflecting the different behaviors these phases might experience.

>Fix for >100 Nodes in NODELIST and SUBSYSTEM Dialogs of 500 Node Version.

A problem has been fixed which could cause difficulties displaying a node list with more than 100 nodes in the NODELIST and SUBSYSTEM dialogs of the 500-node version of the program.

>Automatic Check for Updates Added When Connected to Internet.

A new feature has been added which allows an automatic check for updates via the internet any time the program is started when an internet connection is present. The automatic check can be disabled from the Help menu using the CheckForUpdates option. The same menu selectiion can be used to manually check for updates, to review details about any available updates, to download updates, to see update prices (if they are not free), to request a quote for updates and to order certain updates.

>Accelerator Key Definitions Added to Tooltip Help for Dialog Buttons.

Tooltip help strings for certain dialog box buttons have been updated to include the accelerator keys which can be used in lieu of the buttons.

Build 14 - 29MAR04

>Installation Setup Modified for Proper Creation of Shortcuts.

A change has been made to the configuration of the new MSI installation setup now used by most TEAPAC programs. Now when shortcuts are created in the start menu or the desktop during installation, they are configured properly with the installation folder set as the 'Start In' folder (Working Directory) for the shortcut. In recent TEAPAC releases which use the new MSI installation system, this configuration option was not selected, resulting in a possible problem when running the program in Exporting to HCS and locating the Help file (on-screen manual, Help-Contents menu, Help buttons and F1 key) and/or the Recent Changes file (Help-RecentChanges menu).

Build 12 - 03MAR04

>Prot-Perm LT Flags More Reliable for Analyze.

A more reliable means of determining some of the complex protected-permitted relationships in the HCM was implemented in the initial release of SIGNAL2000 Ver 2 for the DESIGN optimization aspect of the program. These new methods have performed well under the challenging conditions of constantly changing timings during optimization, and thus have now been implemented in the capacity-analysis-based ANALYZE aspect of the program so that consistent results will be obtained under all conditions from both aspects of the program.

The primary potential impact that this change might have on a user is that the HCM definition of phase adjacency for protected-permitted (compound) left turns may be applied differently now for capacity-analysis-only functions than in previous capacity-analysis-only analyses. This could result in different lost times for compound left turn movements, and thus different delay values under these limited conditions. Capacity analyses of optimized conditions which immediately follow use of the DESIGN function will not change.

>Prevent Division by Zero and Overflow Errors for Unusual Cases.

Certain unusual cases which can produce overflow and/or division by zero results which crash the program have been added to the data contingency checks of the program to prevent future crashes under these conditions. For example, optimization under certain conditions can create very small g/C values which cause problems when calculating the Fmin value of the permitted left turn Flt calculations. Now the Fmin calculation has the same limit applied as the Fm calculation to prevent this from being a problem during optimization. Another example is when a significantly over-saturated analysis is performed, the aproach and intersection total delay values might overflow, causing similar crash potential for the Evaluate function. Lastly, if certain inadequate signal timings have been entered for a capacity analysis, division by zero can result in the attempt to verify the inputs. All of these conditions are now detected before they occur so that a less catastrophic message can be issued, as necessary, and the analysis can proceed without interruption.

>Further Enhancements to Ver 5.12 Interface.

The Ver 5.12 TEAPAC interface found in most TEAPAC programs has been further refined with additional features to aid in the analysis process. These include: 1) saving the current intersection in the data file so that when the file is re-opened, the same current intersection is re-established (rather than always being pointed to the last intersection in the Nodelist), 2) providing the ability to scale a bitmap background for a single intersection analysis by right-clicking on a point 100 feet from the intersection, and 3) providing a Clear button on the Subsytem and Route dialogs so that the lists displayed can be removed with a single click.

Build 10 - 31DEC03

>Further Enhancements to Ver 5.1x Interface.

If a NODELIST entry is read from a Shared file, the new NODELIST is appended to the current NODELIST instead of replacing it. This effectively allows the merging of separate data files to create a larger system. Caution must be used when one file is already open in a program and another file is opened that was not created by the current program, since this file will automatically be Open-Shared, and thus appended if it has a different NODELIST.

If an INTERSECTION entry is read from a Shared file and is not in the current NODELIST, it is automatically appended to the end of the NODELIST. As with NODELIST above, this makes the Shared function effectively an automatic Merge function.

Duplicate nodes encountered in a NODELIST entry or an appended NODELIST are ignored.

The File-OpenShared menu item has been changed to File-OpenMerge/Shared to better indicate the fuction which this type of Open normally performs.

When a LinkTo function prompts the user to save changed data before the LinkTo is performed and a new path/file name is given, this path/file name is used by the LinkTo function. If no file has been provided, the LinkTo function performs properly with a linkage to the next rpogram, but without any data transfer.

>Pending New PRENOSTOP Program Added to LinkTo Menu.

A pending new TEAPAC program call PRENOSTOP which interfaces the NOSTOP program to the data of other TEAPAC programs such as this program and SIGNAL2000 has been added to the LinkTo menu.

:SIGNAL2000 Ver 2.01 02FEB03

Build 54 - 05JUN03

>Lost Times Re-calculated After Design for Each DESIGN N Capacity Analysis.

Lost times are now re-calculated before each capacity analysis which is performed as part of a DESIGN N analysis. This accounts for those occasions where various phasing being considered by DESIGN cause different lost time calculations, the last of which might not be correct for subsequent capacity analyses which are performed as part of a DESIGN N analysis. This guarantees the same, correct lost times are used for capacity analyses produced by either the ANALYZE or DESIGN N functions.

Build 52 - 04JUN03

>Convert ByPhase to ByMov Uses Reqclearances to Maintain Individual Y+AR.

The Convert button on the GREENTIMES and YELLOWTIMES dialogs has been modified so that when ByPhase timings are converted to ByMovement, the REQCLEARANCES values for each movement are used to define the ByMovement clearances rather than using the ByPhase phase clearances. This permits individual movements to maintain distinctly different clearance times, regardless of how many timnes the Convert button is used. To this end, entries of ByMovement clearance times in the YELLOWTIMES dialog are always transferred directly to the REQCLEARANCES dialog, and REQCLEARANCES entries are transferred directly to the YELLOWTIMES dialog if timings are ByMovement.

Build 50 - 08MAY03

>Expanded Seamless LinkTo Menu Includes New PRESYNCHRO and PRETSPPD.

With the addition of the PRESYNCHRO and PRETSPPD programs to the TEAPAC family of seamlessly integrated programs, these two programs have been added to the LinkTo menu which allows one-click transfer of data and control to these programs, as well as to the original PRETRANSYT, PREPASSR and PRENETSIM programs.

>Pedestrian Phase Displays Divider Line In Output Reports.

When displaying a phasing which includes an exclusive pedestrian phasse in various output reports such as the Capacity Analysis Summary, the position of the ped phase is noted by showing the word PEDPHASE in the vertical divider line which separates the two vehicle phases which surround the exclusive ped phase. In addition, the existence of the ped phase is accounted for when calculating offsets for every phase displayed.

>Old Format System Cycles Read from PRETRANSYT, PREPASSR and PRENETSIM Files.

If a 'system cycle length' is read from an old-style data file from PRETRANSYT, PREPASSR or PRENETSIM, this old-styled definition is accommodated by assigning this system cycle to each intersection defined in the NODELIST read from the file.

>Faster Output Window Update.

The display speed for large amounts of information in the Output Window has been substantially increased so that an inordinate amount of time is not spent when many capacity analyses, optimizations or data summaries are produced in a single output window.

>Sample Bitmap Background Provided with Sample Data File.

An example bitmap background is supplied with the sample data file SIGNAL20.FOR for display with the View-Network menu option.

:SIGNAL2000 Ver 2.00 30NOV02

Build 12 - 06DEC02

>View-Network Window Sized Better for 800x600 Resolution Screen.

The initial release of Version 2.00 could produce a View-Network window that was too big for screens with an 800x600 resolution, resulting in associated problems re-sizing the window and scrolling its contents. This has been fixed. Screen resolutions less than 800x600 are not supported by the View-Network function, although pre-sizing the output window with another result such as View-Summary may work under certain conditions.

>Possible Inconsistency Fixed Between DESIGN and ANALYZE for Negative Overlaps.

Under certain circumstances when optimization resulted in 'negative' overlap phases, DESIGN could use a different strategy than ANALYZE for dealing with the negative phase, resulting in possible discrepancies between the resulting cycle lengths for each analysis. This condition could produce unexplainable (and unnecessary) inconsistencies between the results of a DESIGN 1 and a subsequent ANALYZE of the same conditions. This potential discrepancy has been fixed so that the same strategy for dealing with 'negative' overlaps is used consistently throughout the program.

Build 10 - 30NOV02

>Analyze or Optimize up to 500 Intersections with a Single Click.

SIGNAL2000 now has the same data structure as PRENETSIM, PRETRANSYT and PREPASSR, in that multiple intersections can be entered and stored in a single data file. The list of intersections is managed with a new NODELIST entry which lists all the available intersection numbers which have been used, and the INTERSECTION entry which selects the 'current' intersection from the NODELIST. The current intersection is the one for which data entry will be accepted and for which analysis functions like DESIGN and ANALYZE will be made. The current intersection can be selected by using the drop down list in the INTERSECTION dialog again, or by 'walking' through the NODELIST with the +/- buttons found on the main toolbar and relevant entry dialogs. The current intersection is displayed in the status bar at the bottom of the main window. Intersection numbers can now range from 1 to 999.

New intersections can be added to the network by first adding it with the NODELIST dialog, then selecting it from the INTERSECTION drop-down list (or typing it in the INTERSECTION combo box). As a shortcut, the new intersection number can be typed (with a description) in the INTERSECTION combo box, in which case the user will be prompted with an option to add the intersection to the end of the NODELIST automatically.

INTERSECTION 0 is a selection which represents all intersections in the NODELIST. When this is selected, certain actions like ANALYZE and DESIGN 1 will be performed for all intersections. Certain other actions like SORT, TIMINGS and EXPORT are not valid when INTERSECTION 0 is selected, as these actions can pertain to only a single intersection.

Usage Level 1 of SIGNAL2000 will only perform a capacity analysis for a single intersection. Usage Level 2+ of SIGNAL2000 includes the optimization feature. Usage Level 2 handles up to 12 intersections, Usage Level 3 is up to 100, and Usage Level 4 is up to 500.

>Additional System Commands Help Manage Multiple Intersection Activities.

Several additional entries have been created in SIGNAL2000, as found in the TEAPAC preprocessors, which assist in managing the activities which surround multi-intersection analyses. In Usage Level 3 and above, the SUBSYSTEM entry can be used to select a group of intersections which is a subset of the NODELIST for subsequent analysis when INTERSECTION 0 is selected. A ROUTE entry can also be used to define up to 8 predefined subsets, usually, but not limited to arterial routes, which can then be used as shortcuts in the SUBSYSTEM entry by entering the negative route number.

>Combine Prior SIGNAL2000 Files into a Single Data File.

Since prior versions of SIGNAL2000 (and SIGNAL97, SIGNAL94, etc.) only handled one intersection in each data file, it will be desirable to merge all of these files into a single file in SIGNAL2000 Version 2. This can be done quite easily by opening each prior file using the File-OpenShared menu, as long as each of the intersections loaded used a different intersection number or no number at all (in which case you will be prompted to enter a number). The list of intersection numbers to be used can be entered in the NODELIST in advance of the OpenShared, or the user will be prompted to automatically add each intersection number to the end of the NODELIST as new numbers are encountered. When all intersections have been loaded, use File-SaveAs to save the single combined file into a new file name. If OpenShared is not used, the possibility of losing all data previously entered into Version 2 exists due to the way the older versions initialized the older programs; if Version 1 files are being Opened, this condition is detectable and a warning is issued to that effect.

>Explicit Ability to Represent Nema-style Controllers.

When entering or viewing controller timings, a new Convert button appears on the GREENTIMES and YELLOWTIMES dialogs which allows the user to select the style of entry or view, either 'By Phase' which is the traditional HCM method, or 'By Movement' which is more similar to the way timings are used on NEMA and other dual-ring controllers. If any timings are present, they will be converted to the other format at the same time, including YELLOWTIMES if the GREENTIMES dialog is displayed, and vice versa. When timings are Converted, the conversion will also include reviewing the allowed SEQUENCES list and moving the appropriate sequence code to the top of the list according to the timings present.

Allowing timings 'By Movement' makes it apparent that for certain overlap phases, phase lengths which are apparently negative in the 'By Phase' method are, in fact, perfectly valid timings for dual-ring controllers, as long as the negative value of the overlap phase greentime does not exceed the yellowtime of that same phase. This permits a wider range of timings to be represented by the traditional 'By Phase' (HCM) methodology, and this extension is now also permitted by the optimization method of the DESIGN command. 'By Movement' timings are not allowed when special phasings represented by negative SEQUENCE codes are used.

>Easy Entry of Multiple Phasing Possibilities for Optimization.

NEMA-style, dual-ring controllers inherently support multiple phasings from the perspective of the traditional 'By Phase' approach of representing signal operations. This means a typical dual-ring SEQUENCE list might look like, for example 14 15 16, to indicate that the north-south phasing is single phase (1), but that the dual-ring controller can handle any protected left turn phasings (4), including overlaps (5 & 6). Shorthand codes A, B, C and D have been created for representing these typical permitted lists of SEQUENCE codes, as follows:

-- A represents codes 1-8. This is all possible phasings.
-- B represents codes 1-6. Left turn protection with option for no LT phase.
-- C represents codes 4-6. Left turn protection requiring a LT phase for all lefts.
-- D represents codes 7-8. Left turn protection using Lead-Lag/Split-phase phasing.

Thus, the example list above (14 15 16) can be entered simply as 1C, a list like 11 12 13 14 15 16 can be entered as 1B, and all codes can be entered as AA (ALL is still allowed).

>Definition of Up to 9 Special Phasings Allowed.

Prior versions of SIGNAL allowed special phasings to be defined for ANALYZE, etc. (but not DESIGN) by referencing SEQUENCE code 0 and then using PHASEMOVEMENTS. For compatibility with PRETRANSYT, etc. SEQUENCE codes -1 to -5 were also allowed. Now that multiple intersections in the system may require special phasing descriptions, the negative notation is a requirement in SIGNAL2000. The number of special phasings has been increased to nine through use of the SEQUENCE codes -1 to -9.

>Seamless Integration with PREPASSR, PRETRANSYT and PRENETSIM.

A new LinkTo menu has been created that allows immediate transfer of control to the TEAPAC preprocessors PRENETSIM, PRETRANSYT and PREPASSR. This transfer of control includes closing the current data file, with a prompt to save unsaved data, and passing that file to the new program. This permits immediate use of the preprocessor functions with virtually no overhead of collecting the necessary SIGNAL2000 files for use by the preprocessor. This is due primarily to the new multi-intersection feature added to SIGNAL2000, and the presence in SIGNAL2000 of all of the system control information which the preprocessors require (like OPTIMIZE, SIMULATION, etc.). The file opened in the preprocessor will be OpenShared automatically and should not be saved into by the preprocessor, as such a save will lose much of the intersection detail SIGNAL2000 placed in the file and the preprocessor has ignored. A warning message to this effect is issued by the preprocessor if a save is attempted.

>Vastly Enhanced Optimization Features.

The biggest change in the optimization by SIGNAL2000 is via the new entries which are possible in the LEVELOFSERVICE command. In prior versions, the first entry of LEVELOFSERVICE was the target level of service desired for critical movements, and the second entry was basically ignored by DESIGN. Now the LEVELOFSERVICE entry contains two sets of three entries, the first set for delay targets and the second set for v/c targets, as follows:

<target delay> is the desired amount of delay for all critical movements
<max delay> is the max amount of delay for critical movm'ts before switching to v/c
<delay increment> is the increment of delay used to move from target to maximum

<target v/c> is the target amount of v/c (%) for all critical movements
<max v/c> is the max amount of v/c (%) for critical movements before giving up
<v/c increment> is the increment of v/c (%) used to move from target to maximum

The optimization will first attempt to balance the delay of the critical movements at the target delay value. If this is possible, any excess time will be allocated proportionally to phases which support the priority movements defined on the EXCESS entry (or all phases if no EXCESS is defined). If the target cannot be reached, repeated attempts will be made to balance delay at subsequent delay values using the delay increment provided. If the maximum delay is reached without a solution, the optimization moves to the v/c targets provided with the same incremental process. If the maximum v/c cannot be satisfied, then a 'Saturated' solution (LOS S) is forced using the last v/c target attempt as a starting point. LOS letters are still accepted for the first two delay entries.

This new strategy accomplishes several important benefits. 1) Any delay target can be specified, not just a delay value that defines a LOS boundary (eg, 35, 55 and 80 for LOS C, D and E). 2) A delay target greater than 80 (LOS E boundary) can be specified, if this is a desired objective. 3) When a given target is not attained, the smaller allowed increment of delay between LOS boundaries permits much better balancing of delay levels when these critical delays are not close to an LOS boundary. 4) A specific v/c target can be selected, rather than just 100%.

The SORT results have been modified to reflect these changes: a new column has been added to show the actual delay or v/c target which was used when a solution was reached (not just the LOS achieved). The LOS is still listed, but the list is further sorted by the target achieved, which does a beter job of ranking the optimized phasings and reflecting the quality of performance each phasing solution will produce.

If it is desired to skip the delay target process completely and perform only v/c balancing, this can be accomplished by setting the delay target to zero. Likewise, if it is desired to skip the v/c balancing after the delay targets are not met (thus forcing a solution based on the last delay target), this can be accomplished by setting the v/c target to zero.

>Calculation and Reporting of Minimum Cycle Length which is Never Violated.

A new column has been placed in the SORT results which displays the minimum cycle length for the phasing and movement minimums specified. If the cycles tested do not reach this cycle, the LOS displayed in the DESIGN and SORT reports is M and no solution is produced, now guaranteeing that minimums are never violated by any solution produced by the optimization. This is in contrast to the previous method which did not distinguish between a 'Forced' solution due to oversaturation and one due to minimum cycle constraints.

>Improved Optimization of Cycle Length for All Cycles which Yield the Same LOS.

When several cycles produce the same critical LOS, prior versions of SIGNAL simply picked the lowest cycle, since in the eyes of the HCM the results were indistinguishable (all the same LOS) and the lowest cycle was likely to produce the shortest queues. Now in this case the cycle which produces the least critical delay (within the accuracy of the optimization delay increment) will be selected. This typically results in a capacity analysis which reflects slightly less critical delay than the cycle previously selected.

>Improved Optimization for Priority and Critical Right Turns.

An improvement has been made to the way critical right turns are handled, as well as when they appear in the EXCESS list of priority movements. Now, additional time is only allocated to the through phase for the right turn, instead of all the RT phases.

>Improved Optimization and Reporting when Minimums Control the Optimization.

When a phase time is controlled by a minimum, a tricky situation exists in the optimization process when an initial assessment is made as to how much time each phase requires for a certain critical target, and then excess time is allocated to phases for priority movements which include this phase (or no priority movements have been defined). The problem is that the initial phase time for the phase already includes the minimum, so it is this time that is expanded, not the time required to meet the target. However, if the initial phase time used is for the target, the expanded phase time may not meet the minimum. This becomes a circular problem, but one that has been solved by a clever bit of iterative optimization that makes sure the minimums are met, but expands the time required for the target if possible. The net result is that in many such cases, the phase controlled by the minimum will remain controlled by the minimum, instead of getting additional time from the EXCESS process, thus making more time available for other priority critical movements and resulting in overall improvement in performance. As a byproduct of this new method, the phasing diagram in any optimized capacity analysis will display an 'M' in the lower left corner of a phase which is still controlled by a minimum in the final optimized timings.

>Option to Report Critical Delay and/or v/c Achieved by DESIGN for Every Cycle.

A new option in the OUTPUT dialog has been added that allows a more detailed report after a DESIGN which shows the critical movement delay or v/c target which has been achieved for every cycle/sequence combination optimized. This permits a more detailed assessment on the effect that cycle length has on the critical target (delay or v/c) than allowed by the normal DESIGN result, since that table only has room to report the critical LOS for each combination.

>Improved Modeling Issues for Optimization.

A change in the iterative DESIGN optimization now makes the definition of Protected-Permitted adjacency during optimization more consistent with the proper definition which is used when performing a capacity analysis. This results in a more consistent comparison between the DESIGN result and a capacity analysis when this situation controls the DESIGN. This was particularly apparent in situation where an optimum overlap time was zero, which now makes the phases 'adjacent' during optimization, where it wasn't considered adjacent before.

>View-Network Menu Added to Display Connected Intersection Network.

This new menu selection permits viewing the interconnections between intersections which have been defined by the multi-intersection inputs to the program, particularly in relation to entries which have been made in the NETWORK dialogs. The graphical display shows all of the relationships between intersections which have been established in a proportional diagram layout that can be scrolled across the entire network area. If desired, a bitmap of an aerial photograph or map of the study area can be defined as a background for this display to show the study network in relation to the information reflected by that background. The bitmap should be stored in the same folder as the associated data file, and should have the same name as the data file, but with a .BMP extension.

>Optimized Phasing is Selected Automatically for Subsequent Capacity Analysis.

When the TIMINGS command is used to review the timings optimized by DESIGN for a specific SEQUENCE code, this SEQUENCE code is automatically placed at the top of the list of allowed SEQUENCES so it will be the SEQUENCE used by a subsequent ANALYZE, EVALUATE, QUEUECALCS, EXPORT, etc. The dialogs related to these actions no longer accept the entry of a sequence code due to this change, making it much easier to move from DESIGN to ANALYZE for various sequence codes and without the possibility of performing inappropriate and incompatible actions by each.

>Phasing Diagrams in Dialogs use Better Arrow Representations of Movements.

Arrows shown in dialog boxes depicting turning movements have been improved in design so they are easier on the eye and more clearly depict the movement intended. In addition, permitted movements in phasing diagrams in dialogs are depicted with dashed lines for added clarity. Also, arrows have been added to some dialogs for improved clarity.

>DESIGN Optimization Function can be Aborted Before it is Completed.

The Cancel button has been fixed in the DESIGN progress window allowing the DESIGN to be aborted before it is completed. Cases where this might be helpful include 1) when it is apparent that the results being generated are not adequate and changes need to be made, and there is no need to complete the DESIGN, 2) where the LEVELOFSERVICE controls have created a DESIGN with a time-consuming precision that is not necessary or appropriate, and need to be revised to start the DESIGN over, and 3) where DESIGN 1 for the entire network has been initiated and will take some time to complete, but a need for a change is observed in the progress output before it is completed.

>Miscellaneous Error Detection Improvements.

Several places where incomplete or grossly oversaturated conditions could cause division-by-zero crashes have been modified to detect the conditions before the crash and respond accordingly.

>Reorganization of Groups to Accommodate Multiple Intersections.

A new group of entries called [SYSTEM] has been added in the Edit menu to contain those command dialogs which are needed to manage multiple-intersection data inputs. These include the NODELIST, SUBSYSTEM, ROUTE, MASTERNODE and OPTIMIZE commands. QUEUEMODELS and SIMULATION have been moved to [SYSTEM] from the [INTERSECTION] group, and OUTPUT has been moved there from [TARGETS]. LEVELOFSERVICE and EXCESS have been moved from [TARGETS] to [INTERSECTION] and the [TARGETS] group has been deleted. The INTERSECTION command has been added to the [APPROACH], [MOVEMENTS] and [PHASING] groups, particularly for the Tabular View. The SUMMARISE output has also been updated to reflect similar organizational changes brought about by the new multi-intersection nature of the program, and most output reports have had the intersection number and description added at the top of the report, if not already included. Errors, warnings and progress messages have also had the intersection number added.

>Preview of Pending TEAPAC Interface Version 6 Changes (Interface Version 5.10).

A number of generic enhancements which will appear in all TEAPAC programs as TEAPAC Interface Version 6 are being previewed in SIGNAL2000 Version 2. Licensees of this version will be entitled to receive free updates to the Version 6 release when it is made official. These enhancements are described below:

>Output and Edit Window Management Changes.

The output window has been vastly enhanced with a number of important new features which the user will find helpful. These are: 1) The output window can be left open to accept additional subsequent output in situations where having all the output together in one place will make its assessment easier, such as multiple capacity analyses or optimizations listed in the same window for easier comparison and/or printing. 2) The maximum size of output held in the output window has been increased from a nominal amount to a virtually unlimited amount, limited only by available memory and to some extent processor speed. 3) Toolbar buttons and status-bar/tool-tip help has been added for all output window menu items. 4) The output generated by long calculations such as DESIGN or multi-intersection computations can be viewed progressively in the output window as they are generated, rather than needing to wait until they are all completed. 5) In control files, the HEADING -1 command can be used to force a display of results generated so far. 6) The output window is sizable and moveable, and the size and location is remembered throughout the remainder of the session. Most of these changes apply to the Edit window as well.

>Moveable Dialogs, Location Remembered.

All dialog boxes and message boxes are now moveable to any location on the screen, and the location is remembered for future dialogs throughout the remainder of the session. This allows for custom organization of the user's desktop which matches the immediate needs of his/her analysis. This can be particularly helpful in highly multi-tasked environments, on ultra-high resolution screens, and on systems with dual monitors.

>New Refresh Button for Normal and Tabular Views of Visual Mode.

A new Refresh button has been placed on virtually every dialog box for the purpose of refreshing the dialog with the current values in each entry cell, in the event there is any confusion about whether a given entry has been accepted. This is particularly helpful after certain errors have been encountered or in a Tabular View display where one entry may change another entries values without changing the display (eg, when a WIDTH entry changes a LANES entry in a different place of the dialog). It can also be used to reset an action dialog's entries to the defaults after first being changed by the user.

>Warning of Possible Incompatible Advanced File Usage.

Advanced users of multiple files and/or multiple data sets in a single file are warned if a normal, simple Windows file command such as File-Save is used that appears inconsistent with the prior advanced file usage for the currently opened files. This is intended to prevent inadvertent saving of data on top of unintended places in advanced usage files.

>Help Available for Errors and Warnings from Manual Mode.

The Help button has been enabled in error and warning boxes which are issued as a result of actions initiated from the Manual Mode. Previously, these helps were not available.

:SIGNAL2000 Ver 1.11 02FEB02

Build 16 - 14JUL02

>Additional Checks Made for Lost Time Consistency.

Data input is now scanned to make sure that the Green+Yellow(+AllRed) times entered are compatible with the StartupLostTime and EndGain times entered, such that the resulting effective green times will be greater than zero. If this is not the case, an error message is issued and the analysis is cancelled to prevent erroneous results and possible division by zero crashes. This is particularly important when the resulting lost time is greater than the Yellow(+AllRed) time entered. Comparable checks are also made when an overlap phase time is zero, a condition which is permitted since, by definition, no movement sees the overlap time as the only phase time given.

>New Entries Allowed for Compatibility with PRETRANSYT, PRENETSIM and PREPASSR.

A number of new entries have been added which match those recently added to the PRETRANSYT, PRENETSIM and PREPASSR programs. These entries have no impact on the SIGNAL2000 calculations or results, but permit their entry with all other input data with SIGNAL2000 so the SIGNAL2000 files can be used directly by these other programs without modification. The input summary report has been updated to include the new entries.

GROUPTYPE can now be used to define lane groups which are sign-controlled. Permitted values now include Stop and Yield, which are control conditions which can be modelled by TRANSYT and CORSIM. If an intersection includes lane groups controlled by signs as defined by GROUPTYPES, SIGNAL2000 will process the information, but will skip any analysis of the intersection, with an advisory warning to this effect.

NETWORK has two new options added at the end of the entry, one to define the upstream-downstream assignment method to be used on links of a TRANSYT network, and the other to define the link curvature for CORSIM.

SIMULATION has four new options which define various parameters used by TRANSYT, CORSIM and PASSER.

Coordinate values entered via the NODELOCATION entry can now have a range of plus or minus 2,147,483,647 instead of the prior limited range of -9999 to 32,768. This greatly increases the flexibility and ease with which coordinate values can be derived and used.

>New Features for Export-Auto Host Definition and Launching.

The Options-Setup dialog now allows the name of the Host executable file to be added at the end of the Host path, in the event that this executable name is different than used by default. The dialog also displays the 64-char limit for path\file names which must be observed. When the AUTO option of Export is executed, the program will now first look for the designated Host program (either the default or specified name) and issue a message if it is not found, cancelling the Export.

>TEAPAC2000 Version 5.02 Generic Interface Fine-tuning.

In the first release of the TEAPAC2000 Ver 5 Interface, users may have experienced difficulty using the Advanced Datafiles LOAD and SAVE functions from the Tabular View. These functions have been updated to work properly from the Tabular View.

Error messages generated from the Manual Mode, data files or control files will list the specific line of input which generated the error, with the offending item highlighted in red. If the information came from a file, the file number and line number of the error is also listed.

The File-New function has been updated to make sure that previous NETWORK entries are set back to default values, not just hidden. This assures that the old values do not unexpectedly appear later when an incomplete NETWORK entry is made.

Shortcut keys have been added to the File-RecentFiles and File-Save dialogs for more expediant keyboard manipulation.

Certain warning and error messages shouldn't be closed automatically by the new AutoClose option if these messages expect or require user response. The AutoClose option is now ignored for these cases.

The Help-Messages menu item has been changed to Help-RecentChanges to better reflect its purpose.

The Help-About menu item now shows the specific program name.

The default size of the Help window has been increased in size vertically to better display the contents of the complete, on-screen manual and context-sensitive help topics.

Build 00 - 02FEB02

>HCM Queue Model Changes Implemented.

The HCM Capacity Committee approved several changes to the HCM queue model that have been implemented in SIGNAL2000. Most notably, the method for handling unbalanced lane utilization has been improved from an approximation to a more precise calculation. Further, the original method allowed the calculation of an average lane queue, even when the saturation flow rate and delay calculations were based on unbalanced lane utilization -- this inconsistency has been removed. Lastly, the formula for the second term queue (Q2) was updated to include the effect that an initial queue has on this term.

The effect of these changes on SIGNAL2000 is felt in several areas. First, slightly different HCM queue calculations will be obtained by the ANALYZE, EVALUATE and QUEUECALCS functions when lane utilization factors less than 1.00 are used and/or when an initial queue is specified. Second, Models 2 and 5 (average lane queues) have been eliminated and Models 1 and 4 use whatever lane utilization factor was specified, creating the necessary consistency between the satflow, delay and queue calculations. Note that if the lane utilization factor used in the calculations is 1.00 the average lane delays and queues will be calculated, and if the lane utilization factor used is less than 1.00 the delays and queues will account for the unbalanced lane utilization (a worst lane analysis). If Model 2 is selected with QUEUEMODELS, Model 1 is used; if Model 5 is selected, Model 4 is used; and Models 2 and 5 no longer appear in the QUEUECALCS results.

>Queue Model 6 (MBQ) Improvement.

Queue Model 6, the historic maximum back of queue model (MBQ), has been modified to prevent the denominator from going zero or negative under grossly over-saturated conditions. This enhancement prevents the model from delivering negative results or crashing under these conditions, and displays '*****' as the queue result.


The RESET function was inadvertantly disabled for the OUTPUT Worksheets entry with the initial release of SIGNAL2000. This function has been enabled. This has no effect on the computation of results, but simply enables the ability to turn the Worksheet output off using the RESET function.

:SIGNAL2000 Ver 1.10 25SEP01

Build 10

>TEAPAC2000 User Interface Version 5 Implemented

The WinTEAPAC2000 Version 5 User Interface has been implemented in SIGNAL2000 to provide the latest standardized TEAPAC interface found in all TEAPAC programs. The following lists the many changes which this new interface provides:

>New Tabular View Option Provides Dense Data Entry Displays.

Two views for Visual Mode, normal and tabular.
More data inputs per dialog, less helps and cues.
Toggle view between Normal and Tabular with View menu or F3 key.
Tooltip help and status line help for each entry field.
Context-sensitive help button for access to complete help in .HLP.
Execute button for action functions.
Next & Prev buttons if input list takes more than one dialog (PgUp & PgDn).
Alt-X accel to move through input keywords (commands) with keyboard.
Create custom Tabular View input dialog with ASK command from Manual Mode.
IODEV param #1 changed to toggle View.
Options-Setup allows option to startup program in Tabular View.

>New Recent File Dialog in File Menu.

Review list of last nine files and paths used.
Can select/edit file names and re-open selected files.
Option to include list of recent files and paths in File menu.
List of recent files can be cleared from the dialog.

>New Features for Saving Files.

Files now contain name & version of program which wrote the file.
-- also include the date & time of the Save
-- easily viewable information at the beginning of the file
Message advising of successful save remains visible until closed by user.
-- option to close the message automatically for subsequent Saves
Warning if Save is attempted into a file that may over-write other info.
-- warning condition is if file was written by another program or unknown
-- certain earlier versions of the same prog may provide warning if relevant
-- option to cancel save or to permit save anyway

>New Feature for Opening Files.

If data from another prog or earlier ver of same program read from a file,
-- that file is protected from Saves that may over-write other information
In particular, for file from another program, Share is automatic.
-- makes File-Open same as File-OpenShared & LOAD * * * same as LOAD * * Share
-- eliminates the need to use the OpenShared or LOAD * * Share explicitly

>New Results Log Option.

Ability to create text file with results of primary functions of program.
Log Results item in Options menu.
Log On/Off toggles whether computed results are currently being logged.
Start New Log clears all prior logged results and toggles Log On.
Log file is always the program name with .log extension.
-- located in folder where program was installed

>Improvements Regarding Output Titling Information.

Any time a title line is read from a file, displayed in the title bar.
-- provides feedback when loading multiple stacked files or control file
Blank title entries are saved in such a way that they will be restored.
-- previously, blank entries were ignored, leaving the prior entry
The option to use %F in a title line entry is noted in the input dialog.

>TED Edit Window Available in Advanced Edit Option of File Menu.

Option to edit current open file (#1) contents directly.
-- particularly for control files
-- also option to open a different file into the editor
-- -- converts to TEAPAC format when Saved
-- -- CONVERT.exe no longer needed for small files
-- available only when licensed copy of TED is installed
Upon saving the edits, option to open the edited file into the program.
-- e.g., to Launch an edited control file

>Printer Setup Supported Directly in File Menu.

Option to Setup printer only, or Setup and Print.
-- ability to select printer and printer options while in the program
-- prior method only allowed printing to current selected printer and option
Toolbar button and Ctrl-P accelerator print immediately with current setup.
Same print options are provided in the File menu of the Output window.

>Improved Context-sensitive Help Features.

Tooltip popup help has been added for any dialog box input field or button.
-- display after delay when mouse cursor hovers over input field or button
Status line help also appears for the input field with the input cursor.
HELP in manual mode for a single command displays the relevant part of .HLP.
As before, Help button or F1 key to display the relevant part of .HLP.

>New Save and Linkage Features Provided When Exiting the Program.

Warning message for unsaved data has been reversed with option to Save.
-- message now consistent with most other Windows programs
-- -- (in the way the question is asked)
-- option to Save or not save, or to Cancel the exit
New ability to link to another program using the File-Control-Stop dialog.
-- name the next program to run, as well as file to use, if desired
-- can be used from a control file to link programs or control files
-- also link from Manual Mode
The Quit menu which duplicated the File-Exit menu has been removed.

>Command History in Manual Mode.

Remembers last 10 manual mode commands used.
Use up- and down-arrows to see history of commands.
Re-use previous command or adjust to create new command.

>WinTEAPAC2000 Ver 5 Menu Program Enhanced.

A data file can be named in the display for the next selected program.
A Browse button has been added to assist in naming the data file to be used.
-- provides standard extensions for typical files of supported programs
A data file from a TEAPAC2000 Version 5 program can be dragged to WinTEAPAC.
-- will launch the program that created the file and use the dragged file
-- can drag the file to the WinTEAPAC window or desktop icon
The .FOR extension used by TEAPAC is registered when WinTEAPAC runs.
-- allows double-clicking .FOR files in Explorer and START command in .BAT

>Other Changes:

A 'Getting Started' help button is now available in the main window.
The option to Save output to a text file now allows the user to name a file.
A more informative message is issued if a file to open is already in use.
Better message if attempt to Open a non-TEAPAC file.
TEAPAC programs can now be installed in a folder with spaces in path name.
A new option exists to automatically close subsequent warnings and errors.
-- stays in effect until control returned to user
-- for stacked files and control files
Files can now be dragged to a desktop icon to launch the program.
-- uses the dragged file
All keywords now display using title-case instead of all-caps.
All dialog boxes have been enhanced with a more modern look.
-- using depressed input fields
Protect the Options-Setup fields which should not be changed.
-- except by re-installing
Browse buttons have been added for the data and host path entries.
-- to simplify changes
The current data file path from Options-Setup is shown in the FILES dialog.
Reading data from a file during control file execution doesn't set flag.
-- so won't get prompted with message to save data from a control file
Better closure of main window if control file halts program.
-- same function improved if control file dragged to main window halts prog
Hourglass mouse cursor displays while printing.

:SIGNAL2000 Ver 1.01 22FEB01

>New Constraints for Queue Model Calculations.

The HCM Capacity Committee has discovered that in the transcription of the underlying research which led to the new queue model in the HCM2000, the HCM2000 contractor omitted a number of critical constraints which must be applied when making the computations of that model. Not using these constraints has led to irrational results in some cases, including extremely large queue values, negatvie queues, and even program crashes. Although these problems could have been observed under many different circumstances, they occurred predominantly when arrival types other than 3 were used and/or when conditions were oversaturated. An addenda in the form of an official interpretaion from the Capacity Committee will formally amend these missing constraints to the HCM. SIGNAL2000 now uses these new constraints and produces much more sensible results under these conditions.

The underlying theory which leads to these constraints for the HCM queue model also apply to the calculation of delay, so the same constraints will be imposed by the Committee on the HCM delay equations. In this case, however, they are much less likely to cause any change in results due to other limits which are already present in the delay methodology of the HCM2000.

Also, several of the other queue models supported by SIGNAL2000 via the QueueCalcs function had the ability to generate very large results which might overflow the computation and/or display limits of the program, resulting in a crash. These results have been trapped and are displayed with asterisks '*****' so that computations may continue without a crash. Specifically, Models 7 & 8 can produce conditions which exceed the computational limits of typical PCs for the Poisson distribution for high percentiles and/or high v/c ratios. Under very high oversaturation, all of the models may produce queue lengths (in feet) which exceed the display space available. All of these cases now produce '*****' to avoid the program crash.

>New Direct EXPORT for HCS2000.

Now that the HCS2000 program has been released, SIGNAL2000 supports a direct EXPORT to HCS2000, including all of the new input variables which were not previously included in the HCS-3 EXPORT previously supported by SIGNAL2000. These new variables include bicycle volumes, queue storage space and lengths of queued vehicles. Previous EXPORTs from SIGNAL2000 would not have included these variables. SIGNAL2000 and WinTEAPAC also support running the executable Signals module of HCS2000. The default installation location of HCS2000 is now the default for the new WinTEAPAC and SIGNAL2000 EXPORT configuration. The new EXPORT feature will make it easy to run comparable analyses with both SIGNAL2000 and HCS2000. Check the HCS Watch page at for a record of problem reports in HCS2000 that this capability uncovers.

>Enhanced Shared-exclusive Lane Modeling (Dual-Optional Lanes).

A number of important enhancements in the way shared-exclusive lanes are modelled in SIGNAL2000 have been made which will deliver better results over a wider range of conditions. These lane configurations are those which contain both exclusive turn lanes and shared-lanes for a given turn maneuver, and are called Dual-Optional lanes in SIGNAL2000. Dual-Optional lanes are implemented in SIGNAL2000 using the GROUPTYPES entry. These changes include the following:

The dual-optional model has been extended to include exclusive lane turn movements which also share lanes with other exclusive lane turn movements. It has also been extended to include through lanes which share lanes with both adjacent exclusive lane turn movements. Previously, turns with exclusive lanes could only share lanes with the adjacent through movement (not another turn movement), and a given through movement could shared lanes with only one of the turns on the approach which also had exclusive turn lanes. As before, the computation of the lane assignment of optional turns in the shared lane is automatic, but a new limit has been imposed on this calculation which prevents an inordinate number of vehicles to be re-assigned to the shared lane group. Effectively, this limit allows the shared lane to only receive a maximum total flow as defined by the input value of the lane utilization factor for the shared lane group. Assigning more than this amount would effectively move vehicles into a second shared lane, which would be impossible.

In light of the above change, the percentage of turning traffic in a dual-optional through lane group is now re-computed for all turns in the lane group after the shared-lane volume has been determined to reflect the adjustment in the total volume in the lane group. The percent trucks in the lane groups with dual-optional turns included is also re-computed to reflect the potential difference in truck percentages from each of the contributing movements in the shared lane.

Exporting of dual-optional lanes to HCS2000 is now supported directly for all of the models described above, without the need for any additional user adjustment (as was previously required). This includes the proper setting of the number of lanes, the shared-lane status, and the percent turns using the shared lane input value.

Dual-optional lane groups are now labelled in the SIGNAL2000 outputs in a more clear way by showing the movement labels for the movements which have been included in the shared lane groups. The + and - signs used previously next to dual-optional lane widths are still included to indicate the presence of additional or less capacity due to the dual-optional status.

>Better Input Error Detection for Special Phasing Definition.

Additional error detection has been added to user input of special phasings (e.g., using PHASEMOVS with SEQUENCE 0) to improve the likelihood of detecting improper phasing definitions. In particular, the use of negative movement numbers to represent permitted left turn phasing has been augmented by preventing the inadvertant use of negative numbers for through and right turn movements.

>Modeling for Special Case of Permitted Left Turn Corrected.

An obscure special case of the Single-Lane Approach permitted left turn model has been implemented, whereby if the opposing single-lane approach has a left turn volume of zero the calculated value of 'gdiff' is set to zero. Although occurence of this case is rare, when it does occur this new model will produce a different and more reasonble result, according to the methods of the HCM.

>Improved Modeling of MOE's in EVALUATE for Protected-permitted Left Turns.

The HCM2000 queue model specifies a special averaging method to determine a single value of satflow for protected-permitted left turns for use in various traffic calculations such a v/s. For consistency, this technique has been extended into the other MOE calculations in the EVALUATE report along with the total g/C for the combined phases. This technique is arguably a superior way to estimate the effect of combined protected-permitted phasing on MOE calculations such as fuel consumption, CO emissions, vehicles stops, etc.

:SIGNAL2000 Ver 1.00 12OCT00

Build 02 26DEC00

>Queue Model Adjustment for Grossly Oversaturated Conditions.

Queue models 7 and 8 cannot be evaluated for grossly oversaturated conditions without exceeding the computational limits of most PC's. These queue models have been modified to provide an estimate of the desired queue value in order to avoid a possible crash when these conditions are encountered.

Build 00 07DEC00

>SIGNAL2000 Hits the Street.

SIGNAL2000 is the first piece of software available which implements the procedures of Chapter 16 of the 2000 Highway Capacity Manual (HCM), released concurrently with the publication of the 2000 HCM by the Transportation Research Board. Over two years in the making and based on its popular predecessors, SIGNAL97/SIGNAL94/SIGNAL85, SIGNAL2000 goes one major step further than the procedures of Chapter 16 -- SIGNAL2000 also optimizes the phasings and timings of an intersection to produce the best possible capacity analysis, like SIGNAL97 has done previously.

>New Features Offered by SIGNAL2000.

SIGNAL2000 offers many new features above and beyond those available in SIGNAL97. These features are discussed in the following paragraphs.

>New 2000 HCM Methods Implemented.

The basic methodology of the 2000 HCM for signalized intersections has been implemented in the SIGNAL2000 program. The changes over the 1997 HCM method consist primarily of the addition of the new queue model offered by the HCM, the new detailed modeling of pedestrian and bicycle interference on vehicular traffic, a new model for shared-lane, protected-permitted left turns, and completely revised and detailed worksheet formats. Of particular interest, the new HCM queue model in Appendix G of the 2000 HCM takes into account the effects that all of the following conditions have on queueing: volume of demand, actual green time, cycle length, saturation flow, capacity, v/c, maximum extent of queue on pavement, coordinated operation, actuated operation, unbalanced lane utilization, protected-permitted operation, over-saturation, upstream v/c, initial queues, length of analysis period, average storage length of queued vehicles and various percentile estimates; thus it is the most comprehensive and legitimate queue model available for the widest possible range of conditions.


A new QUEUECALCS function has been provided which provides unprecedented flexibility in calculating and comparing queue values using the many different queue models which have been in use over the years, as well as the new 2000 HCM queue model described above. QUEUECALCS allows the side-by-side comparison of the results of 10 different queue model calculations for a given capacity analysis condition, with any one of these models being selectable as the model of choice in the capacity analysis output. Four basic model structures are included: the 2000 HCM model, the ARRB model, the MBQ model, and the SIGNAL97 model. Several variations of these models are computed bringing the number of models calculated to ten. The basis of the variatiions revolve around whether the calculation is for the average lane of a lane group or for the worst lane of a lane group, whether the average or percentile queue value is calculated, and whether constant or user-input vehicle spacings are used. The following summarizes the characteristics of each of the ten models used.

1 - HCM 2000 HCM, MBQ, Worst Lane. XXth Percentile Queue
2 - HCM 2000 HCM, MBQ, Average Lane, XXth Percentile Queue
3 - ARRB ARRB, MBQ, Worst Lane, 95th Percentile Queue
4 - HCM 2000 HCM, MBQ, Worst Lane, Average Queue
5 - HCM 2000 HCM, MBQ, Average Lane, Average Queue
6 - MBQ Historical MBQ, Average Lane, Average Queue
7 - S97E+ SIGNAL97 Evaluate+, MQL, Average Lane, XXth Percentile Queue
8 - S97A+ SIGNAL97 Analyze+, MQL, Average Lane, XXth Percentile Queue
9 - S97E SIGNAL97 Evaluate, MQL, Average Lane, 90th Percentile Queue
10 - S97A SIGNAL97 Analyze, MQL, Average Lane, 90th Percentile Queue

Appendix C of the manual (both printed and online as the Help file) provides complete detail of each of the models. The QUEUEMODELS inputs have been enabled in order to define the characteristics of each of these models, and the STORAGE input has also been enabled in support of the queue ratio calculations.

>Initial Queue Delays Calculated.

Delay which results from standing queues at the beginning of the analysis period are now calculated according to the procedures defined in Appendix F of the 2000 HCM. These queues can have an important impact on the delay calculated for a peak period, and even on the selection of the design period for an analysis. The INITIALQUEUE input has been enabled in support of these calculations.

>HCM Delay Displayed in EVAULATE Results.

The delay reported in the results of the EVALUATE function now reports the same delay as calculated by the HCM methodology. Previously an alternative delay formulation was used in contrast to the HCM method, specifically to address the limitations of the HCM method for calculating over-saturated delay, but this differentiation is no longer needed since the HCM delay method is now completely robust in this regard.

>More Flexibility in Worksheet Display.

The 2000 HCM contains a myriad of worksheets which detail the HCM calculation methodology. In order to help sort through these worksheets for the essential results, a new OUTPUT option has been added to produce only the BASIC worksheets -- these are the Input Worksheet, the Volume and Satflow Worksheet, and the Capacity and LOS Worksheet. The OUTPUT options are now: NONE/BASIC/FULL.

>SIGNAL97 Build 16 Changes.

Several minor changes have been made to SIGNAL97 in its final release (Build 16) which also appear in the new SIGNAL2000 program. These include an improved method for determining the lost time for shared lane groups on the stem of a T intersection and improved exporting of actuated and pedestrian conditions to HCS. See SIGNAL97 release notes (SIGNAL97.MSG) for more detail on these items.

>Improved HCS Export.

In addition to the improved HCS export discussed above, SIGNAL2000 also checks the ranges of data being exported to HCS, since HCS has certain input limitations that are more limiting than SIGNAL2000, and HCS reacts poorly to exported data which exceeds these limits.

>Phasing Inputs Checked for Validity.

Certain phasings which appear to be valid are in fact not allowed by the HCM methodology, so SIGNAL2000 provides an additional cross-check to confirm that these phasings have not been used when they are not appropriate. Specifically, if a left turn is made from a shared lane, the HCM method does not support the calculation of delay for that left turn if the phasing does not allow the associated through movement to move during all phases where the left turn is allowed to move. This means that SEQUENCE codes 4/5/6 are not allowed under these conditions, although this may not be immediately apparent upon casual inspection of the HCM. SIGNAL2000 verifies that this condition does not exist (SIGNAL97 only checked that it was not allowed for the DESIGN function). Also, the HCM does not support the calculation of delay for movements which start and stop more than once during the cycle, since this violates the basic premise of Webster's original delay formulation. The most common occurence of this situation is with right turn arrows. SIGNAL2000 now checks for this condition as well when the PHASEMOVEMENTS entry is used to define a phasing for analysis. Lastly, SIGNHAL2000 checks to make sure that protected-permitted phasings have been entered properly when entered using the PHASEMOVEMENTS method.

>GROUPTYPES Entry Re-located Closer to WIDTHS and LANES.

The position of the GROUPTYPES entry has been re-located in the Edit-Movement menu so that it directly follows the entry of WIDTHS and LANES. Now users will be able to input certain special lane use conditions like dual-optional turn lanes and free-flow lanes immediately after entering the basic lane group width information.

>SUMMARIZE Includes New Input Variables.

The SUMMARIZE display (also produced by the View-Summary menu option) has been updated to include the new user inputs such as INITIALQUEUE, STORAGE, QUEUEMODELS and BIKEVOLUMES.

>Version Information Saved in Data Files.

The first line of a SAVEd data file now contains information regarding the name and version of the program producing the file (SIGNAL2000 in this case), as well as the date and time the Save was performed. This information may be helpful to users sorting through data files at a later date. It is also anticipated that future versions of TEAPAC programs may be able to make use of this data, as well.

this page last updated September 07, 2008